Religions

BHAGAT RAVIDAS JI : AN ASCETIC AND A SOCIAL REFORMER

February 03, 2015 09:40 PM
Bhagat Ravidas Ji
by Dr Amrit Kaur

       Bhagat Ravidas Ji was born to Raghu Ji and Ghurbinia Ji who lived near the city of Varanasi in U.P. He is respected by the Sikhs because he is one of the fifteen Bhagats whose compositions have been included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib,  the Holy Book of the Sikhs.

The basic tenets of Sikh religion include that all the creatures have been born out of One Light i.e. God Almighty.

His hymns as included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib belong to ragas - Siri, Gauri, Asa, Gujari, Sorath, Dhanasari, Jaitsari, Suhi, Bilaval, Gaund, Ramkali, Maru, Kedara, Bhairau, Basant and Malhar.

So, no one is higher or lower than any other person. Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji envisioned a society which discards class and caste prejudices and places all individuals on equal footing  rrespective of their socio-economic status and caste. He preached that the distinctions made on the basis of religion and caste do not have any relevance in the parlok (after world) because all individuals  have been created out of One Light. In the parlok (the next world) what will matter is truthfulness. Following his footsteps the succeeding Sikh Gurus in their compositions also discarded caste prejudices.

        Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the fifth prophet-teacher of the Sikhs while compiling Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Holy Book of Sikhs, in addition to the compositions of Sikh Gurus also included the compositions of those bhagats (holy men) who had expressed views in consonance with the tenets

of the Sikh religion. Hence Bhagat Ravidas Ji’s 40 shabads have been included in this Holy Book.

His hymns as included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib belong to ragas - Siri, Gauri, Asa, Gujari, Sorath, Dhanasari, Jaitsari, Suhi, Bilaval, Gaund, Ramkali, Maru, Kedara, Bhairau, Basant and Malhar. It may be added that in Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji, besides including the hymns of his four predecessor Gurus and his own hymns included compositions of 15 saints belonging to different castes - (I) Brahmans,  Mohammadans, Jat, washerman (calico-printer), chamar, weaver, Rajput and barber (ii) 11 bhatts and (iii) four other holy men- Bhai Mardana Ji, Rai Balvanta Ji (doom rababi), Bhai Satta Ji (doom rababi) and Baba Sunder Ji. The Holy Book of Sikhism is the only Holy Book, in which the contributions of holy men of different religions and castes have been included and the compositions of all these holy men have been given equal status. 

        Bhagat Ravidas Ji  in his hymns given below has proclaimed that he was born near Varanasi and that he was a chamar (low caste). In his compositions he has called himself a chamar several times and  also that his family is doing all the chores the chamars perform.

        O humble townspeople, I am obviously just a shoemaker.

                                                                                  (SGGS, page 1293)      

 Each day, It is my occupation to prepare and cut leather; 

        I carry the carcasses out of the city.

                                                                                   (SGGS, page 1293)  

         I have not performed the service of the Lord,

         Says Ravidas, the cobbler. 

                                                                                    (SGGS, page 486)        

         My social status is low, my ancestry is low, and my life is wretched.          I have come to your Sanctuary, O Luminous Lord, my King so says Ravidas, the shoemaker.

                                                                                   (SGGS, page 659)        

         The color of my Lord’s Love, however, is permanent,like the dye of the madder plant. So says Ravidas, the tanner.

                                                                                     (SGGS, page 346)         

          I am dedicated to your loving devotional worship, says Ravidas the tanner.                                                                                     (SGGS, page 346)         

          And all the leather-workers in those families still go around Benaras removing the dead cattle.                                                                                     (SGGS, page1293) 

         Which means that he being a chamar  was carrying the carcases of dead animals and that ther members of his family which was low caste were still doing this work. 

        It may added that the main occupation of chamars is carrying the dead animals to the place where their skeletons are collected, peel the skull of dead animals and making shoes of  leather. 

                Bhagat Ravidas Ji preached that love of worldly goods is useless. Love of this world is like the pale, temporary color of the safflower.

                                                                                       (SGGS, page 346) 

         For sometime, Bhagat Ravidas Ji followed the family profession of tanning hides and making shoes but then he started to admire the company of sadhus. He left his house and constructed a thatched hut and started entertaining ascetics in his hut. 

        In the early stages he worshipped images and idols. But later on he immersed all of his idols in the river Ganges and started worshipping the God Almighty. Then he travelled widely to propagate his message that God is omnipresent and omnipotent and we should concentrate on

His Name rather than worshipping idols. He disbelieved in the ritualism (i) of going to pilgrimages and (ii) bathing in the 68 tiraths. He travelled through Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gurgaon, Prayag, Mathura, Vrindavan, Haridwar and Multan (now in Pakistan). In the sacred memory of his visits monuments have been raised at several of these places. 

        Because of his low caste he was given many troubles by the Brahmins. These caste-based rifts reached the Mohammadan ruler. Since idol worship is forbidden in Islam, the Mohammadan ruler cleverly thought of a plan wherein he could degrade both the groups. He decided to put a few idols on a silver chowki and put them on the other side of the river. Since Brahmins considered idol worship to be their right only and forbade low caste person to do idol worship, the Mohammandan ruler gave them the first choice to get the idols floated towards the hither shore by invoking their gods.

 He told them that and if they fail to do so then Bhagat Ravidas Ji would be asked to do this. Pandits were very happy for having seen given the first choice. They recited many mantras for 24 hours but nothing happened. Then Bhagat Ravidas Ji was asked to get the idols floated towards hither side of the river. He started kirtan (singing of hymns) along with his bhajan mandli (hymns singing group). To the astonishment of all the idols crossed the river and came to the hither side of the river. At this several upper caste persons became his disciples. The Rajput princess Meeran Bai also became his disciple. 

        By including the hymns of Bhagat Ravidas Ji in Sri Guru Granth Sahib all his followers instead of termed as low caste became children of One Father.  ] He was a disciple of Ramanand Ji and contemporary of Bhagat Kabir Ji. No document handwritten by Bhagat Ravidas Ji is available. After he left for his heavenly abode, his followers noted down all that they remembered in the hymns sung by him. The first unpublished collection titled “Ravidas Ke Pad” (1589) was in the possession of Baba Haridas Ji of Aligarh.

Under the same title another unpublished collection (1652) is present in the State Library of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The third unpublished collection of his compositions titled “Ravidas Ji Ki Bani” is that published by Balvadre Press, Allahbad in 1908. Another important published collection is the Shastri and Pande’s book ‘Sant Ravidas Aur Un Ka Kavaya’ (1956). After this many other collections of his compositions have been published. It is thus clear that the earliest of his published compositions are the 40 hymns included by Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji in Sri Guru Granth Sahib (1604), which were published 304 years before the publication by the Balvadra Press, Allahabad. 

       He discarded the Hindu rituals of performing aarti (ritual worship with Lighted Lamps in a tray moved in a circular motion in front of an idol) and preclaimed as follows : 

Your Name, Lord, is my adoration and cleansing bath.

Without the Name of the Lord, all ostentatious displays are useless.

Your Name is my prayer mat, and Your Name is the stone to grind the sandalwood.

Your Name is the saffron which I take and sprinkle in offering to You.

Your Name is the water, and Your Name is the sandalwood. The chanting of Your

Name is the grinding of the sandalwood. I take it and offer all this to You.

Your Name is the lamp, and Your Name is the wick. Your Name is the oil I pour into it.

Your Name is the light applied to this lamp, which enlightens and illuminates the entire world.

Your Name is the thread, and Your Name is the garland of flowers.

The eighteen loads of vegetation are all too impure to offer to You.

Why should I offer to You, that which You Yourself created?

Your Name is the fan, which I wave over You.

The whole world is engrossed in the eighteen Puraanas, the sixty-eight sacred shrines of pilgrimage, and the four sources of creation. Says Ravidaas, Your Name is my Aartee, my lamp-lit worship-service.

The True Name, Sat Naam, is the food which I offer to You.

(SGGS, pages 694) 

       Says Ravidas, the Lord is nearer than our own

       hands and feet. Whatever will be, will be.

                                                  (SGGS, page 658)       

        He asked the God Almighty :

        What karama (actions) will bring emancipation, and total perfection?

                                                  (SGGS, page 346)                       

        Bhagat Rvidas Ji yearned :

        For so many incarnations, I have been separated from

        You, Lord. I dedicate this life to you

        Says Ravidas : placing my hopes in You, I live; it is so long

        since I have gazed upon the Blessed vision of Your Darshan.

                                                   (SGGS, page 694) 

He yearned to get a glimpse of God Almighty and proclaimed :

O Lord of all worlds! reveal to me, even for an instant, the Blessed Vision of Your Darshan.

                                                                                (SGGS, page 346) 

         Bhagat Ravidas Ji says : God is nearer to us them own hands and feet. This year the Birth

Anniversary of Bhagat Ravidas Ji was celebrated today i.e. February 3, all over the world.

*Dr Amrit Kaur (Retd.) Professor from Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, india

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